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Graphene - change the world's future material

Graphene - change the world's future material


1. Definition of graphene

Graphene (graphene) is a single layer of carbon atoms densely packed into a two-dimensional honeycomb lattice structure of carbonaceous new material, is to build a number of other dimensions carbonaceous material ( such as zero-dimensional fullerenes ! One -dimensional nanotubes ! graphite D ) of the basic unit . Its name comes from Graphite ( graphite ) + Ene ( ene ) , graphite itself by numerous graphene layers piled .


2, The characteristics of graphene

( 1 ) Electrical Properties
The electrical properties of graphene with most conventional three dimensional structure has a huge difference. Graphene is a typical semi-metallic ! Zero band gap semiconductor . Six two-dimensional hexagonal angle near the corner of the low-energy region , E2k relationship is linear . E = vF # K2x + K2y (vF is the Fermi velocity of about one million meters per second ) . Thus forming two zero effective mass Dirac fermions , photons with similar characteristics . Experimentally derived from conductivity measurements show very high graphene carrier mobility ( room temperature over 150,002 # -1 # -1 , even more than the speed of conduction in silicon ) is more prominent high mobility of such corrosion rate is affected by the temperature and chemical impact of small extent . On the other hand , the resistivity of graphene is smaller than silver , and therefore the planet min at room temperature resistivity of the material.
( 2 ) Thermodynamic Properties
When electrons pass through the graphene , the thermal effects of vibration is low. And it has high thermal conductivity , the phonon conduction is dominant .
( 3 ) Mechanical properties
According to research conducted at Columbia University , graphene is now the largest human cognitive strength of the material. For example : If you can produce the equivalent thickness of plastic bags ( thickness of about 100 ) graphene , you need to exert a pressure of about 20,000 before it can be snapped. This means that graphene harder than diamond .
( 4 ) Optical Properties
Special electrical properties of graphene produced a high degree of opacity of its unexpected , this one is only one atom thick crystal size can actually see with the naked eye .


3, the potential applications of graphene

1 ) graphene -based electronic devices
Speaking applications of graphene -based electronic devices bear the brunt. This is because most of the current efforts are focused on in this direction . Such as Intel and IBM have invested a considerable sum of corporate funds for research and development , because in silicon-based technology and gradually came to an end at the same time , anything that might replace silicon materials are quite popular, and graphene seems to be a particularly prominent selection . The reason is that , in the graphene , even when subjected to high intensity electrical and chemical effects , it is still able to maintain high carrier mobility , so that a graphene at room temperature ! Sub-micron scale for ballistic transport of the material. Because of its excellent electrical properties , graphene has attracted high-tech personnel interested in the construction of ballistic transistors . In 2008 , the world's smallest transistor was born, which consists of graphene structure, the thickness of an atomic diameter , the width is 10 atomic diameters . This achievement in the development of graphene -based electronic devices and ultra- high-speed computers on the road of great significance .
2 ) Other Applications
( 1 ) hydrogen storage materials
Graphene has excellent hydrogen adsorption, maybe in the future it can contribute to alleviate the energy crisis .
( 2 ) a battery electrode
This application is now one of the major markets graphene its enormous area to volume ratio and a high conductivity can improve the utilization efficiency of the battery to replace the battery in the modern high-performance carbon fiber position.
( 3 ) Composite
The application of a wide range of composite materials , such as graphene conductive plastics application .
( 4 ) gas detection sensors
Graphene as a material is now the world's first sensor to detect a single molecule of gas sensors .


The special nature of the naturally produced special value , the potential applications of graphene tremendous value . Many scientists estimate that graphene will replace silicon-based semiconductors. Graphene is not a rapidly vanishing scientific fashion, by virtue of its unique nature it brings us new physical frontier broad application . With the development of graphene technology , I believe that one day in the future , we can be a library of information stored in a large sesame microcomputer .

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